现在完成时的结构现在完成时由“have/has+过去分词”构成，主要有两个含义①表示动作发生在过去，但与现在的情况有联系，有时无时间状语，有时和一些表示不确定的过去时间状语连用，如：many，times，just，yet，already，before，so far,by now等②表示从过去某一时间开始一直延续到现在并还可能继续延续下去的动作，用于延续性动词，且句中常带有表示一段时间的时间状语，如：since，for two months, in the last,so far等二 、现在完成时和一般过去时都能表示过去发生过的动作，但现在完成时表示过去动作对现在的影响，并且表示这一动作已完成或还可能继续下去；而一般过去时与现在的情况没有联系，仅表示过去的动作，且这一动作到说话时已终止。因此现在完成时不能与表示明确的过去时间如when，in1949，yesterday，last week等的状语连用，并且用when或where对这些时间和地点状语提问时，一般只用一般过去时。三、在“it is first/second...time that...。”或在“it/this/that is the +最高级+名词+that...。”结构中，that从句中的动词常用现在完成时；在“it + be ...+since从句”这一结构中，be可用一般现在时或现在完成时，since从句一般用过去时比较过去时与现在完成时1）过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情，强调动作；现在完成时为过去发生的，强调过去的事情对现在的影响，强调的是影响。2）过去时常与具体的时间状语连用，而现在完成时通常与模糊的时间状语连用，或无时间状语。一般过去时的时间状语:yesterday, last week，…ago, in1980, in October, just now, 具体的时间状语共同的时间状语:this morning, tonight, this April, now, once，before, already, recently，lately现在完成时的时间状语for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till / until, up to now, in past years, always,不确定的时间状语3）现在完成时可表示持续到现在的动作或状态，动词一般是延续性的，如live, teach, learn, work, study, know.过去时常用的非持续性动词有come, go, leave, start, die, finish, become, get married等。举例：I saw this film yesterday.（强调看的动作发生过了。）I have seen this film.（强调对现在的影响，电影的内容已经知道了。）Why did you get up so early?（强调起床的动作已发生过了。）Who hasn't handed in his paper?（强调有卷子，可能为不公平竞争。）She has returned from Paris.她已从巴黎回来了。She returned yesterday.她是昨天回来了。He has been in the League for three years.(在团内的状态可延续)He has been a League member for three years.(是团员的状态可持续)He joined the League three years ago.( 三年前入团，joined为短暂行为。)I have finished my homework now.---Will somebody go and get Dr. White?---He's already been sent for.句子中如有过去时的时间副词（如 yesterday, last, week, in 1960）时，不能使用现在完成时，要用过去时。（错）Tom has written a letter to his parents last night.（对）Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night.用于现在完成时的句型1）It is the first / second time…. that…结构中的从句部分，用现在完成时。It is the first time that I have visited the city.It was the third time that the boy had been late.2）This is the… that…结构，that 从句要用现在完成时.This is the best film that I've (ever) seen.这是我看过的最好的电影。This is the first time (that) I've heard him sing.这是我第一次听他唱歌。典型例题(1) ---Do you know our town at all?---No, this is the first time I ___ here.A. was B. have been C. came D. am coming答案B. This is the first time 后面所加从句应为现在完成时，故选B。(2) ---Have you ____ been to our town before?---No, it's the first time I ___ here.A. even, come B. even, have come C. ever, come D. ever, have come答案D. ever意为曾经或无论何时，反意词为never，此两词常用于完成时。 This is the largest fish I have ever seen. It is / was the first time +that-clause 的句型中，从句要用完成时。注意：非延续性动词的否定形式可以与表示延续时间的状语连用。即动作不发生的状态是可以持续的。（错）I have received his letter for a month.（对）I haven't received his letter for almost a month.比较since和forSince 用来说明动作起始时间，for用来说明动作延续时间长度。I have lived here for more than twenty years.I have lived here since I was born..My aunt has worked in a clinic since 1949.Some new oilfields have been opened up since 1976.I have known Xiao Li since she was a little girl.My brother has been in the Youth League for two years.I have not heard from my uncle for a long time.注意：并非有for 作为时间状语的句子都用现在完成时。I worked here for more than twenty years.(我现在已不在这里工作。)I have worked here for many years.(现在我仍在这里工作。)小窍门：当现在完成时+一段时间，这一结构中，我们用下面的公式转化，很容易就能排除非延续动词在完成时中的误使。1)(对) Tom has studied Russian for three years.= Tom began to study Russian three years ago, and is still studying it now.2)(错) Harry has got married for six years.= Harry began to get married six years ago, and is still getting married now.显然，第二句不对，它应改为 Harry got married six years ago.或 Harry has been married for six years.[编辑本段]since的四种用法1) since +过去一个时间点(如具体的年、月、日期、钟点、1980, last month, half past six)。I have been here since 1989.2) since +一段时间+ agoI have been here since five months ago.3) since +从句Great changes have taken place since you left.Considerable time has elapsed since we have been here.4) It is +一段时间+ since从句It is two years since I became a postgraduate student.延续动词与瞬间动词1) 用于完成时的区别延续动词表示经验、经历； 瞬间动词表示行为的结 果，不能与表示段的时间状语连用。He has completed the work.他已完成了那项工作。 (表结果)I've known him since then. 我从那时起就认识他了。(表经历)2)用于till / until从句的差异作为延续动词一般用于肯定句，表示"做……直到……" 作为瞬间动词一般用于否定句，表示"到……，才……"He didn't come back until ten o'clock.他到10 点才回来。He slept tll ten o'clock.他一直睡到10点。典型例题1. You don't need to describe her. I ___ her several times.A. had met B. have met C. met D. meet答案B. 首先本题后句强调对现在的影响，我知道她的模样，你不用描述。再次，several times告知为反复发生的动作，因此用现在完成时。2.---I'm sorry to keep you waiting.---Oh, not at all. I ___ here only a few minutes.A. have been B. had been C. was D. will be答案A. 等待的动作由过去开始，持续到现在，应用现在完成时。
Dear Sir or Madam,
I am Cindy.I am a student from middle school.I like reading books .So I want to help kids learn to read.I could read by myself at the age of six .I can do this job every Saturday morning.And I like kids very much.I really like helping others. So I think I would be good at this job.
书在我前面放着，我100%保证的确是10个单元， 外加Review of units 1-5 Review of units 6-10 还有Additional Material 选我哦~
八年级上英语书72页3b 作文： I want to be a translator. Because I can travel all over the world if my dream comes true. At the same time I may be able to meet lots of important people. The first requirement of the job is to learn English and other languages well. So I have been studying English really hard since I came to our school. I like listening to English songs best. I think it really improves my spoken English. My teachers say that I have some talent for learning a foreign language. Maybe I will take another one such as Japanese or French in the future. Self check 3 作文： Mei Fang has been to an amusement park in Guangzhou .She didn't enjoy it because on the one hand, the charge there was too high. It took her several hundred yuan. If the charge can be a little lower, she can accept it. And on the other hand, there were so many entertainment projects which were too frightening, they made her scared. She had her heart in her mouth when she played some games. This kind of feeling made her uncomfortable and want to cry. It was quite a big challenge for her. What's more, Mei Fang is a girl who likes peaceful life. She doesn't like noisy places. The amusement park is so noisy that she couldn't enjoy herself. In a word, it was not a joyful experience.祝您学习进步，更上一层楼！(*^__^*)……