If he were here,he would be greatly surprised.
The spaceship would burn up if it went too close to the stars.
If I had been more careful,I wouldn't have made so many silly mistakes.
If you should miss the chance,you would feel sorry for it.
If you missed the chance,you would feel sorry for it.
If I were you,I would have attended the lecture.(从句表示现在时间，主句表示过去时间）
Were he here this afternoon,I would go with him.2.用于wish后的宾语从句中
I wish I knew his address.
I wish he were a teacher.
I wish I had not told him the news.
I wish I could read the novel in English.3.用于as if等引起的从句中
虚拟语气用于as if(as though)引起的状语从句或表语从句中，表示与现在、过去或将来的情况不符，其谓语动词形式与wish后宾语从句的形式相同。
He often treats me as if I were a child.
Peter talked as if he had really been there.
He acts as if he would be a football star.
She looks as if she were ill.4.用于特定词语后的宾、主、表及同位语从句中
He insisted that we all(should) be in his office at six.
The doctor suggested that she (should) take a trip.
It is necessary that this machine(should) be oiled every day.
It is required that the machine be tested.
His suggestion is that we go out on a picnic next Sunday.(表语从句）
His suggestion that we go out on a picnic next Sunday is wonderful.(同位语从句)5. 用于“it is time+从句”中
It is high time that we went back to college.6.用于would rather等引起的从句中
虚拟语气用于wouldhad rather(would prefer,would sooner)引起的从句中，其谓语动词用过去式，表示当时或将来的情况；其谓语动词用“had+过去分词”，表示过去的情况。
I would rather you didn't tell him anything about it.
She would prefer that she had not stayed at home last night.7.用于lest等引导的状语从句中
He took his umbrella with him in case it should rain.8.其他情况
without,but for,but that等引出的短语可表示虚拟条件意义，主句用虚拟语气。
Without a computer,they would not have finished their calculation so quickly.
虚拟语气讲解一．非真实条件句的虚拟情况: 句型条件从句 主句对现在的虚拟were/didshould/would/could/might+v.对过去的虚拟had doneshould/would/could/might+have+done 对将来的虚拟1.were/did2.were to3.should+v.Should/would/could/might+v.1.与现在事实相反的条件e.g. If I were you, I would go at once. If I had HIV, I would know because I would feel sick.2.与过去事实相反e.g. If you had come a few minutes earlier, you would have met him. If she had told him about the danger, he would not have hurt.3.与将来事实相反e.g. If it were sunny tomorrow, I would come to see you. If he should fail in the experiment this time, he would try again.If we were to panic(受惊,惊慌), we should not be able to help.4.混合时间条件句：主从句不一定用指同一时间的动词。即:假设条件从句谓语动词发生的时间与主句所假设的谓语动词不一致，叫做混合虚拟语气（错综条件虚拟语气）。主句和从句的谓语动词要依照假设的时间而定。e.g. If you ____that late movie last night, you wouldn’t be so sleepy.A.haven’t watched B.didn’t watchC. hadn’t watched D.wouldn’t watchedIf Paul had received six more votes in the last election, he would be our chairman now.If the weather had been finer, the crops would be growing still better.If you had followed the teacher’s advice, you wouldn’t be in the hospital.e.g If I had gone to a key university, I would earn more money now.5．含蓄条件句：有时假设的条件不通过条件从句表示而含蓄在介词短语或上下文中。(1) without 和but for (要不是) 构成虚拟。 e.g Without ( but for ) the party, we wouldn’t be so happy. We might have died without your help. = We might have died if you hadn’t helped us.(2) otherwise , or ( 否则， 要不然) =if…not… e.g. He studies very hard, or/otherwise he couldn’t study so well. I was busy last week, otherwise I would have come to see you. =If I had not been so busy last week, I would have come to see you.( 3 ) if only后加句子… “要是……就好了” 注意：“if only”e.g. If only I could learn English in one day. If only it wasn’t raining. If only Jim had passed the exam. If only Sam would reply to my letter.6．假设虚拟条件倒装。 条件从句中有 shouid,were,had 三个助动词，可以把 if 省略，并将这三个词提到句首 If I were you, I would give it up. Were I you, I would give it up.If it were not for your advice, we couldn’t have got over the difficulties. Were not for your advice, we couldn’t have got over the difficulties二．虚拟语气用于宾语从句中。现在：过去时（were/did）过去：过去完成时(dad done)未来：would/could/might+V. should(不常用)1. wish引起的表示愿望的虚拟语气wish +(that)+主语 +e.g. I wish I could buy a spaceship some day. I wish that he wasn’t so lazy. The exhibition was so bored that I wish I had not gone to it.2. would rather(that)+从句，表示“愿望”的虚拟would rather (that) + 主语 +e.g. I would rather you had gone there.(与过去相反) 你要是去那里就好了。 I would rather you stayed at home now.(与现在) I would rather you could go to America tomorrow.3.用于表示意愿,建议，命令，请求，提议等动词后的that宾语从句中，用(should)+动词原形,这类动词有:ask, advise, arrange(安排), beg, command, decide, demand, desire, determine, insist (坚持要求,硬要), intend, propose, object(反对), order, require, request, suggest(建议)… 一个坚持，两个命令，三个建议，四个要求。即1.insist 2. order, command 3. advise, suggest, propose 4. demand , require, request, desiree.g. She advised that we should keep the door locked. He suggests that she should leave the dangerous house at once. His face suggested that he was angry.(暗示) He insisted that he was innocent.(坚称,坚持说) He insisted that she (should) show him her passport.三． 用于主语从句中。 （1）It’s necessary /strange/ natural/ important + that---Clause 从句中的动词要用虚拟，即（should）+动词原形Eg.It is important that we ( should ) master a foreign language.It is strange that she refuse to come to the party.It’s necessary that we should study hard. （2）It’s+ a pity / a shame +that—clause从句中的动词要用虚拟，即（should）+动词原形 e.g It’s a pity that I should miss the film. (3) It’s + p.p + that—clause从句中的动词要用虚拟，即（should）+动词原形， 其中的p.p 为建议，要求，命令的动词。如：insisted ,ordered , requested ,required ,demanded etc.e.g It was ordered that the old sick man (should) be sent to the hospital at once.四．用于表语从句。主语为表示建议。要求，命令等的名词 如： insistence, order ,advice ,suggestion ,proposal ,reqirement 等e.g My suggestion is that English test( should) be read aloud by students every morning.五．用于同位语从句e.g His suggestion that students should wear school uniform has been agreed.六．用在as if(as though)引导的方式状语(表语)从句中,动词形式和wish宾语从句的形式相同。 as if /though +主语 +e.g. You are talking as if you had seen them. He speaks English as if he were an Englishman. She looks as if she would cry.主语+should+V.(should不能省略)主语+过去时七．用在定语从句中It is (about/high) time thate.g. It is time that you should have a class.=It is time that you had a class. 可该上课了(早该上课了，你怎么还不去?) It is time for you to have a class.该上课了.(上课的时间到了.) It is time that you should leave. =It is time you left.
一.概念: 动词虚拟语气表示说话人的愿望, 假设, 猜测, 建议, 请求, 意图, 设想等未能或不可能成为事实的情况, 或者在说话人看来实现可能性很小的情况, 而不表示客观存在的现实
二.虚拟语气的表现形式: 通过句中谓语动词的特殊形式来表现. 这些特殊形式与谓语动词的某些时态相同, 但它们只表示语气, 而不表示时态, 但含有一定的时间概念
一.虚拟语气在简单句中的用法: 谓语动词用原形或may +动词原形
a. Long live our country.
b. May you succeed.
c. May you be happy all your life.
a. Everybody leave the room.
1.表示与现在事实相反的情况时, if从句的谓语用动词的过去式 (be动词的过去式多用were, 而不用was), 主句的谓语用should / would / could / might +动词原形 (should多用于第一人称, would多用于二三人称, could / might可用于所有人称)
a. If I had more time, I should study computer better.
b. If he were not so busy, she would attend the meeting this afternoon.
c. If they didn’t take exercises every day, they wouldn’t be so healthy.
d. If you went to bed earlier, you would not be so sleepy in the morning.
e. If she invited me, I should go to the party.
2.表示与过去事实相反的情况时, if从句的谓语用had done形式, 主句的谓语用should / would / could / might + have done的形式
a. If she had invited me yesterday, I should have gone to the party.
b. I would have checked my paper again if I had had more time at yesterday’s exam.
c. If you had taken the teacher’s advice, you would not have failed in the exam.
3.表示与将来事实相反的情况时, if从句的谓语形式是: ①.完全动词过去式 (be的过去式通常用were); ②.should +动词原形; ③.were to do. 其中②, ③种情况都含有出乎意料之外之意; 主句的谓语的形式是: should / would / could / might +动词原形
a. If she should invite me tomorrow, I should go to the party.
b. If it rained / should rain / were to rain tomorrow, our picnic would be put off.
c. If I saw him tomorrow, I would pass your note to him.
d. I might come back if I were to miss the train.
1.条件从句省略if: 在书面语中, 如果条件从句中的谓语中有were, had, should等词, 可将if省略, 而把were, had, should放在句首
a. Were I you (=If I were you ), I would get up early very early.
b. Had you arrived (=If you had arrived ) at the station ten minutes earlier yesterday, you could have caught the train.
2.省略条件从句或主句, 省略部分的含义仍有所体现. 省略主句时, 表示己不能实现的愿望
a. You could have done it yourself (if you had wanted to).
b. I wouldn’t smoke (if I were you).
c. If my old friends were with me! (要是老朋友和我在一起该多好啊)
d. If you could have seen the wonderful film!
a. You would speak English well if you had practised speaking it every day.
b. If she hadn’t trained so hard, she wouldn’t be able to run so fast.
4.假设的条件不以条件从句, 而以其他方式如介词短语、从句等表达出来, 这种句子称为含蓄条件句
a. What would you do with a million dollars?
b. Without music, the world would be a dull place.
c. We could have done better with more money.
d. He would have given you more help, but he has been so busy.
四.虚拟语气在as if / though从句中的用法:
1.表示与现在事实相反或对相在情况有所怀疑, as if / though从句谓语用过去式
a. He speaks English so well as if she had studied English in England.
b. She looked as if she were ill.
2.表示与过去事实相反的情况, as if / though从句谓语用过去完成式
a. The machines operated as if it had been repaired.
五.虚拟语气在含even if / though从句的复合句中的用法:
在此类复合句中, 若表示与事实相反, 可用虚拟语气形式. 主从句的谓语动词形式与非真实条件句相同
a. Even if I were rich, I would work.
如果表示说话人的看法, 想法或意见, 在句型 It is / was + adj. + that从句中, 主语从句中可用虚拟语气. 主语从句中谓语动词用should do表示现在或将来情况, 用should have done表示过去情况
a. It is necessary that you should clean the lab before you left.
b. It is important that you should take the doctor’s advice.
c. It was very strange that he should have left without say goodbye.
1.在wish的宾语从句中, 通常表示不可能实现或没有实现的愿望, 常用虚拟语气
a. I wish I knew the result of the match now.
b. I wish it were spring here all the year round.
c. I wish I could help you.
d. I wish I were young.
a. We wish we had got the film tickets last night.
b. I wish you I had met him yesterday.
③.wish的宾语从句若用would, 则一般表示请求, 对现状不满或希望未来有所改变
a. I wish the prices would come down.
b. I wish you would help me.
c. I wish he would be more careful.
d. We wish you would spend the holiday with us.
2.在动词suggest (建议), advise (建议), demand (要求), require (要求), order (命令), insist (坚持)后的宾语从句中, 谓语动词常用( should )+动词原形的虚拟语气形式
a. I suggested that we should go there at once.
b. I demand that he should answer me at once.
c. The doctor insisted that the patient should stay in bed for two weeks.
d. The officer ordered that the soldiers should stop playing.
与名词suggestion建议 / advice 建议 / demand要求 / request要求 / order命令有关的从句(包括同位语从句和表语从句等)中的谓语也用 ( should ) +动词原形
a. The black people made a strong demand that the government ( should ) take steps to change the unfair situation.
b. Their demand is that the government should take steps to change the unfair situation.
c. I was Bill’s suggestion that everybody should have a map.
d. His suggestion was that everybody should have a map.
八.虚拟语气用在句型: It is time that(该做某事了)中: that从句中的谓语动词用过去式
a. It is time we got up.
九.虚拟语气用在if only引导的感叹句中: 表示但愿, 要是就好了, 其中谓语形式与wish的宾语从句相同
a. If only he didn’t drive so fast! ( =I wish he didn’t drive so fast.)
b. If only he had taken the doctor’s advice. ( =I wish he had taken the doctor’s advice.)
c. If only the rain would stop! ( =I wish the rain would stop.)
十.虚拟语气用在would rather / prefer后的that从句中: 表示现在或将来情况谓语动词用过去时形式, 表示过去情况动词用过去完成时形式
a. I would rather he came next Saturday.
b. I would prefer you had seen the film yesterday.
c. I would rather that he painted the house blue
Subjunctive Mood (虚拟语气)
现在时间 陈述语气 does shall/will do
虚拟语气 did should/would do
过去时间 陈述语气 did should/ would do
虚拟语气 had done should/would have done
将来时间 陈述语气 does, am/is/are to do shall/will do
虚拟语气 should do, were to do should/would do
＊ wish cf· hopewish引导的从句表示愿望实现的可能性很小
动词 advise, agree, appoint, arrange, argue, ask, command, decide, decree, demand, desire, determine, direct, expect, insist, intend, order, permit, persist, propose, prefer, pray, provide, recommend, request, require, suggest, urge等之后加(should) do.
eg. I suggest that a meeting (should) be held as soon as possible.
My suggestion is that a meeting (should) be held as soon as possible.
I suggested that a meeting (should) be held as soon as possible.
It is + 下述形容词+ that+ （should） do
advisable, appropriate, better, desirable, essential. Good, imperative, important, necessary, proper, right, urgent, vital
eg. It is essential that everyone (should) bear this in mind.
It is + 下述形容词+ that+ should do
absurd, amazing, annoying, awkward, funny, natural, odd, pitiful, a pity, regrettable, to be regretted, ridiculous, strange, surprising.
＊ should 不能省略
if only +虚拟式would rather/sooner + that + 虚拟式
＊ would rather/sooner + (to) do
eg. I would rather you came tomorrow.
I would rather wait.
It is (high) time + that + did
lest, for fear that, in case + should do
But for…, 虚拟句
But that…, 虚拟句
With/ without…, 虚拟句
God bless you.
Long live China.
Suffice to say that we won.
May you live a long and happy life!
Come what may, we will go ahead with our plan.
Heaven forbid that I should let my own parents suffer.
条件句中的were, had, should 等助动词移到句首，省略if, 构成倒装虚拟条件句。
Eg. If he had come earlier, he would not miss the bus.
Had he come earlier, he would not miss the bus.